Posts

Calories in Pizza Hut

Calories in 28 Pizza Hut Pizzas (with pictures)

Here, we riffle through the Pizza Hut menu to find out how many calories there are in their large pizzas. You might have read our post on calories in generic pizza by the slice and wondered how Pizza Hut compares. Well, read on to find out!

Pizza Hut was born in a Hut

It is called Pizza Hut because the very first Pizza Hut was established by two Uni-student brothers in 1958, in a small cottage-like “hut” located in Wichita Kansas, USA. Whilst it has gone through a rocky patch over here in Australia, Pizza Hut is still the world’s largest pizza chain by number of locations.

Pizza Hut first location

Calories in Pizza Hut Pizzas

Any way you slice it, pizza is a high-calorie food. You cannot expect anything less than lots of calories when you combine lots of dense bread with lots of processed cheese. Pizza from big pizza-chains is also notoriously high in sodium. To make matters worse, chains like Pizza Hut offer endless “extras” like “stuffed crusts”, extra cheese, extra meat, the addition of which quickly transforms a reasonable meal into a calorific monster.

That said, there is nothing wrong with enjoying pizza from Pizza Hut on occasion. Read this list of Pizza Hut large pizzas, ranked from lowest calories to highest, so that you make an informed choice the next time you order online. Note that these are the regular large pizza options, not including any extras. The full pizza values are given, so divide by eight or use our Food Search Box to get nutrition information by the slice or gram:

Pizza Hut Vegan Margherita Pizza

Pizza Hut Vegan Margherita Pizza

One light and breezy Vegan Margherita pizza contains 6009 kilojoules, equal to 1436 calories. The whole pizza has 67 grams of protein and 39 grams of fat.

Pizza Hut Vegan Deluxe Pizza

The Vegan Deluxe from Pizza Hut has 6091kJ, or 1456 calories including 68g protein and 39g fat.

Calories in Pizza Hut Vegan Cheese Lovers Pizza

A full Vegan Cheese Lovers pizza totals 6203 kilojoules/1483 calories, with 66g protein and 45g fat. Pizza Hut uses “cheese” made from soy for this pizza, which allows it to have 40% less calories than the original Cheese Lovers pizza (look further down this list to see the original).

Pizza Hut Vegan Mediterranean Pizza

Pizza Hut’s Vegan Mediterranean pizza has 6308kJ, equivalent to 1508 calories, with 68g protein and 47g fat.

Pizza Hut Margherita Pizza

The least calorific non-vegan pizza sold by Pizza Hut is the Margherita, with 6793kJ (1624 calories) and 91g protein and 51g fat.

Pizza Hut Americano Pizza

Americano pizzas have 7088 kilojoules, or 1694 calories each. A whole Americano has 94g protein and 61g fat.

Calories in Pizza Hut Hot And Spicy Veg Pizza

With 7218 kilojoules, or 1725 calories per pizza, the Hot and Spicy Veg from Pizza Hut is one of their least calorific. Each pizza contains 92g protein and 59g fat.

Pizza Hut Ham Lovers Pizza

Pizza Hut Ham Lovers pizza has 7256kJ, or 1734 calories per pizza, along with 106g protein and 59g fat.

Pizza Hut Garlic Prawn Pizza

The Garlic Prawn Pizza contains 7308 kilojoules, equal to 1747 calories, and 108g protein with 57g fat.

Pizza Hut Hawaiian Pizza

One whole Hawaiian pizza has 7391kJ/1766b calories, with 102g protein and 58g fat.

Pizza Hut Surf and Turf Pizza

A single large Surf and Turf pizza contains 7388 kilojoules, which is equal to  1766 calories. It also has 114g protein and 57 grams of fat.

Pizza Hut Chicken Supreme Pizza

The Chicken Supreme pizza has 7468 kilojoules, or 1785 calories and 109 grams protein with 59g fat.

Calories in Pizza Hut Epic Pepperoni Pizza

A full Epic Pepperoni pizza from Pizza Hut has 7535kJ, 1801 calories, and 98g protein with 72g fat.

Pizza Hut BBQ Chicken Pizza

One BBQ Chicken pizza has 7587 kilojoules, or 1813 calories, and 75 grams of protein with 64 grams of fat.

Pizza Hut BBQ Beef Pizza

Pizza Hut’s BBQ Beef pizza contains 7607 kilojoules, equal to 1818 calories, with 71g protein and 72g fat.

Pizza Hut Creamy Chicken & Bacon Pizza

The Creamy Chicken and Bacon pizza has 7628kJ, 1823 calories and includes 90g protein with 80g fat.

Pizza Hut Hot And Spicy Chicken Pizza

A large Hot and Spicy Chicken pizza contains 7676kJ, or 1835 calories, with 108 grams protein and 64g fat.

Pizza Hut Super Supreme Pizza

One of Pizza Hut’s Super Supreme pizzas is worth 7990kJ (1909 calories), 111g protein, and 74g fat.

Pizza Hut Smoky Chicken And Bacon Pizza

The Smoky Chicken and Bacon pizza has 8145 kilojoules, or 1947 calories, including 116 grams of protein and 72 grams of fat.

Calories in Pizza Hut Pepperoni Pizza

Calories in Pizza Hut Pepperoni Lovers Pizza

Pizza Hut’s Pepperoni Lovers pizza contains 8153kJ, 1949 calories and 104g protein with 86g fat.

Pizza Hut Ultimate Hot & Spicy Pizza

One Ultimate Hot and Spicy pizza has 8205kJ, equivalent to 1961 calories. The pizza contains 108 grams of protein and 80 grams of fat.

Pizza Hut BBQ Meatlovers Pizza

The BBQ Meatlovers pizza packs 8411 kilojoules (equal to 2010 calories), 82g protein and 89g fat.

Pizza Hut Creamy Garlic Prawn Pizza

One large Creamy Garlic Prawn pizza has 8424kJ, equivalent to 2013 calories, and 89g protein with 80g fat.

Calories in Pizza Hut BBQ Cheeseburger Pizza

Pizza Hut BBQ Cheeseburger Pizza

Pizza Hut’s BBQ Cheeseburger pizza contains 8421 kilojoules, or 2013 calories. The pizza has 89 grams of protein and 80 grams of fat.

Pizza Hut Veggie Sensation Pizza

A whole Veggie Sensation pizza contains 8423kJ (2013 calories), and 109g protein, and 84g fat.

Pizza Hut BBQ Mega Meatlovers Pizza

The BBQ Mega Meatlovers pizza from Pizza Hut has 8702 kilojoules, equal to 2080 calories, 94g protein and 90g fat.

Pizza Hut Butchers Block Pizza

The infamous Butchers Block pizza contains 9242 kilojoules, or 2209 calories, and has 95g protein with 104g fat.

Calories in Pizza Hut Cheese Lovers Pizza

Calories in Pizza Hut Cheese Lovers Pizza

The big Cheese Lovers pizza from Pizza Hut contains a chest-tightening 9909kJ, equal to 2368 calories, and 144 grams of protein with 114 grams of fat.

Finger Limes

Finger Limes Demystified

Finger limes are becoming “a thing” now, but not many people know much about them. Read this to surprise your friends and family with an in-depth understanding of Australia’s own Bush Caviar!

Unique Looks

Unopened finger limes are roughly the size (3-12cm long) and shape of… you guessed it, human fingers. At first glance, you probably would not associate this fruit with oranges and lemons, but it is a bona fide native citrus (Citrus Australasica). The citrusy skin, coloured in green, brown, and red shades gives the game away.

Finger Limes look like Caviar

So, externally quite dull. But the fun starts when you break a ripe one open. Small, colourful, shiny, juice-filled, caviar-like blobs ooze out. These globular blobs are the finger lime’s juice vesicles, and like pomelo vesicles they don’t pop without a fight. To understand the growing appeal of finger lime, you must see these fascinating jewel-like vesicles up close.

Where does Finger Lime Come From?

People have been eating finger limes in Australia for thousands of years, from the very beginning of people in Australia. The trees grow wild in native coastal bushland on the border of NSW and Queensland. Being a significantly sized tree (they grow up to 8 metres tall), many were cleared and forgotten by early settlers. Back then, few people were concerned about how pretty the “caviar” would look on flambeed oysters. Besides, there were other, juicier, more useful, bush citruses like the Desert Lime readily available.

Bush Tucker Finger Lime map

Like so many of the hundreds of other half-remembered native Bush Tucker plants, finger limes languished untasted in protected areas for decades. Then, beginning in the 1980s, the Australian Native Plants Society (Australia) (ANPSA), that veritable populariser of native flora, began talking about them. Their legendary Study Groups, peopled by enthusiastic amateur botanists, spread the word until it reached the ears of sensation-hungry gourmet chefs in the 1990s. Finger limes were a hit in the “fancy restaurant dinner” market and now they are breaking into the mass market.

Finger lime cultivation is a hot export-led growth opportunity, with some growers having planted orchards with thousands of trees.

Fancy restaurant

What use are Finger Limes?

Finger limes are best used for their visual effect in garnishes. Unlike a “regular” lime, slicing a cross-section will yield little flavour, and squeezing will give you a bunch of intact vesicles and little juice. For best results, add the juice vesicles to desserts and salad to generate an interesting sour pop mouth experience. You can place a dollop of the “caviar” on shellfish and white fish fillets for the eye-candy effect, but also squeeze some “regular” lime juice over it if you want the flavour to penetrate.

Finger limes are also used to impart “fanciness” to expensive marmalades and other products which would otherwise use regular lime flavours.

Finger Lime Nutrition

There are no nutrition surprises when it comes to finger limes – they pretty much follow the pattern of other limes. Apart from significant levels of Vitamin C (30mg/100g) and a wide array of phytochemicals (polyphenols and terpenes), they are low in nutrients. 100g of finger limes have 10g carbs, 30 calories (126kJ), and 2.8g dietary fibre.


Types of Finger Limes

As is the way with other unusual food which gets “buzz”, there is much misinformation as to the types and claimed benefits of finger limes. There are more than 40 different cultivars (varieties) of finger lime available, and each variety may have a hundred different shades of colour. The colour of citrus flesh is determined by a family of chemicals called cyanins. Different types of cyanins make different colours, and different growing and ripening conditions determine the cyanins. Depending on the temperature, water, and soil chemistry, it is possible to get different coloured finger limes picked from the same tree at different times.

That said, the top three types of finger lime cultivars are:

  1. Pink Ice, which has pink juice vesicles and brown rind
  2. Crimson Tide, with red juice vesicles and brown rind
  3. Chartreuse, a green-skinned fruit with yellow juice vesicles

In general, there is not much point in worrying about which type of finger lime is best – nutritionally they are much of a muchness. The flavour of finger lime is more determined by growing conditions than colour (the colours taste the same).

Finger Lime Tree

Hybrids

In addition to the regular cultivars, agriculturists are experimenting with hybrids of finger lime and other citrus fruits. An example is the finger lime/mandarin hybrid fruit developed by the CSIRO.

Where can YOU get them?

Finger limes have not yet made it to the produce section of bug supermarkets. However, they can be found online from distributors and at local farmers markets. Bear in mind that online, all-year-round stores are possibly selling defrosted fruit which has likely lost its snap. Fresh ripe finger limes are broken with a snap and ooze vesicles, kind of like fresh green beans. Old and thawed finger limes bend without breaking, and their juice vesicles must be carefully scooped out after cutting.

Finger Limes spoilage

Keeping Finger Limes

If you are keen to experience finger limes, then you will probably want to plant your own tree. Freshly picked finger limes spoil fast (unless they have been chemically “enhanced”) and it is a rare week-old finger lime that has not developed patches of mould. This rapid spoilage, and the export market demand, is the main reason that finger limes are so expensive.

It is not especially difficult to grow and nurture a finger lime tree like these from your local Bunnings.  The tree develops excellent citrus blossoms in late summer and fruit in winter or early spring.


Emulsifiers

471 and Every Other Coded Emulsifier in Food

Emulsifier is a word you will see on many different food labels, but what does it mean exactly? What are the emulsifiers represented by codes 471, 322, 491, and 433 made of? Unlike, say, sugar, you simply cannot avoid emulsifiers in processed foods because they are literally in everything. Are emulsifiers bad for your health? Let’s get some answers!

Emulsification

To emulsify means to successfully mix liquids which don’t usually mix. The obvious example is water and oil. Usually, oil just sits on top of water when it is poured in, stubbornly refusing to mix. However, give it a good stir or shake and the oil breaks up into dispersed globules.

How Emulsification Works

The small globules spread evenly throughout the water before floating back to the surface and re-forming a single oil layer. In the mixed state, the water and oil are said to be emulsified.

They form an emulsion through emulsification, a process sometimes enabled by an emulsifier.

The word “emulsion” means “to milk” in Latin, referencing milk, perhaps the world’s most common emulsion of oil and water.


Emulsified Food is High Calorie

Emulsions are common in naturally found, home-prepared, and industrially manufactured foods – a simple emulsion is vinaigrette prepared by simply whisking oil and vinegar together. By far, the most common type of emulsion includes oil, for example milk, mayonnaise, ice-cream, cake batter, peanut butter, margarine, and mashed potato. Thus, since oil/fat is calorie-dense, emulsified foods tend to be almost universally high in calories.

What do Emulsifiers Do?

In the case of our homemade vinaigrette, the emulsion is unstable and will soon separate. To make the oil and vinegar stay mixed, you can add a chemical which prevents the two constituents from going their separate ways. Such a chemical is known as an emulsifier. A common emulsifier in every kitchen is lecithin, found in egg-yolk. Whisking an egg yolk along with the oil and vinegar turns unstable vinaigrette into sturdy mayonnaise, courtesy of the lecithin.

milk is an emulsion

Different emulsifiers work in several alternative ways. Some physically link oil globules to their surroundings by “holding on”. Others break surface tension to allow things in water to get “wet” (soap is an emulsifier). Yet others form barriers around oil globules, so the water and oil don’t contact each other. Depending on the use case, certain emulsifiers work better than others.


Emulsifiers and Health

In the realm of processed foods, emulsifiers are food additives. As such, they must be clearly labelled, and only statutorily approved types may be used. At an industrial scale, simple unprocessed emulsifiers like whole raw egg-yolks are very rarely used. Instead, emulsifiers are the result of multi-step, sometimes proprietary chemical processes.

Some industrial emulsifiers have been linked to adverse health effects. Studies indicate that chemicals like carboxymethylcellulose, polysorbate, and carrageenan cause a significant immune system response resulting in inflammation of the gut. It is the sort of problem that does not usually land a sufferer at the doctor’s office, it is just a niggling discomfort which can gradually build up over time. More disturbingly, some research implicates certain emulsifiers with an increased cancer risk.

Pie filling is emulsified

Thickeners, Stabilizers, or Emulsifiers?

In the world of industrial food additives, thickening, stabilising, and emulsifying are defined differently. However, the lines between the three are blurred because many substances perform all three roles while thickening, stabilising, or emulsifying. For example, Xanthan gum is classed as a stabiliser even when it effectively emulsifies the ingredients in pie filling. Is it an emulsifier stabiliser which thickens, or it is a stabilising thickener which emulsifies? For everyday laypeople like us, all three types of food additives can be usefully grouped together.

Commercial Emulsifiers and their Codes

The emulsifier codes on food labels are useful only if you know which chemicals they signify, and what those chemicals do. These codes are almost universally recognised around the globe and are preceded by an “E” in products sold in Europe. Here is the list of common emulsifiers by code:

322: Lecithin

Lecithin is the name given to any naturally occurring yellowish-coloured fatty substance which attracts both water and oil. An example is the phosphatidylcholine in egg yolk, but there are many different lecithins in a wide range of plants and animals. Much of the lecithin additive in food today is processed from soybeans.

lecithin in egg yolk

Lecithin is added to an enormous number of different foods, including margarine, chocolate, and cooking oil, which means that it ends up in everything made with these basic ingredients.

Lecithin is used as a dietary supplement to deliver the essential nutrient choline and potentially benefit acne sufferers. Some research indicates that eating too much soy lecithin can cause depression.

400, 401, 402, 403, 404, 405: Alginic Acid

Alginic acid is extracted from brown seaweed and used in drinks, ice cream, jellies, and weight-loss supplements. It is also used in the cosmetics, textiles, paper, and fireproofing industries. It absorbs water quickly and is used in anti-acid reflux medications like Gaviscon. The codes 401-405 are different chemical configurations of Alginic Acid.

406: Agar

Agar is a type of jelly processed from red algae. It was discovered by a Japanese innkeeper in 1658 when he tossed out some old seaweed soup then noticed that it had transformed to jelly the next day. It contains a massive 80% dietary fibre and is used to bulk foods up without increasing calories. If you like the “pearls” in bubble tea, you like agar.

algae makes emulsifiers

407, 407a: Carrageenan

Carrageenan is a gel extracted from red seaweed. It forms powerful bonds with food proteins and is widely used in meat and dairy processing. Most carrageenan is made in the Philippines and China, where the seaweed is treated with hot alkali (potassium hydroxide) and concentrated by evaporation.


In addition to widespread use in the meat and dairy industry, carrageenan is also used in toothpaste, beer, soy milk, shampoo, and personal lubricants. Baby formula, shoe polish, diet soft drinks, pet food, sauces, and vegetarian “meats” are also use cases.

Carrageenan is one of the potentially risky emulsifiers we mentioned earlier on in this article. It has been linked to gut inflammation and colon cancer in some studies.

seaweed makes emulsifiers

409: Arabinogalactan

Arabinogalactan is a common plant gum which can be extracted from many common plants and microbes. Its use in nature is to glue damaged plant tissue (if you’ve ever seen gum oozing from a cut in tree bark you get the idea). It is used in many foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, animal feeds, and construction materials.

410: Locust Bean Gum

Locust Bean Gum, also known as LBG, carob gum, carob bean gum, or carobin is a gum derived from the seeds of the carob tree. Most LBG comes from Portugal and Italy. The carob bean pod is known in some circles as the poor man’s chocolate because it is sweet and has a taste reminiscent of cocoa. The LBG itself is produced from the seeds of the pod, and used in various foods as well as insecticides, paper, mining products, and cigarettes.

412: Guar Gum

Guar gum, also known as guaran, is a product of guar beans from India and Pakistan. The process of extracting guar gum from the beans is a multi-stage manufacture which sometimes includes modification by enzymes. Guar gum is extensively used in the hydraulic fracturing industry (“oil fracking”), as well as foods and explosives. When used in food, it has eight times the thickening power of starch. Guar gum is the main ingredient in many brands of laxative.

413: Tragacanth

Tragacanth is a simple plant gum taken from the sap of the Goat’s Thorn weed. It is also known as Shiraz gum, or gum dragon. In the Middle East, tragacanth is a traditional medicine used to treat diarrhea and coughs.

India has natural emulsifiers

414: Acacia Gum

Acacia gum come from the sap of acacia trees. It is also known as gum Arabic, Senegal gum, and gum Sudani, amongst other localised names. Originating from Africa, acacia gum has been used by humans for thousands of years. It is widely used in the food industry, most notably in chewing gum, lollies and confectionery, and pie fillings. A natural prebiotic, acacia gum is fermented in the gut by “good” bacteria. Excessive consumption causes flatulence.

415: Xanthan Gum

Xanthan gum is one of the few foods in the English language starting with the letter X. First discovered by the US Department of Agriculture in the 1960s, it is produced by Xanthomonas bacteria on an industrial scale. Xanthan gum is widely used in the food, oil-drilling, and cosmetics industry. It is an added to dressings, sauces, spices, beverages, meat, baked goods, confectionery, and many other processed foods.

Xanthan gum has been linked to respiratory problems in adults and necrotizing enterocolitis in infants.

bacteria made emulsifiers

416: Karaya Gum

Karaya gum is like tragacanth (code 413), in that it is a natural vegetable gum simply extracted from a tree sap in India.

417: Tara Gum

Tara gum comes from the seeds of the Tara tree from South America. It is used as a more “natural” alternative in processed foods like ice-cream, baked goods, and confectionery. In Peru, Tara tree pods are used as traditional medicine for stomach aches and fever.

418: Gellan Gum

Gellan gum, like xanthan gum, is derived from a US-scientist-discovered bacterial product. The bacteria in question, Sphingomonas, was found growing on a lily pad in a random pond. Gellan gum is widely used as a substitute for gelatine in confectionery, flavoured milk, and ice cream. Unlike gelatine, it remains jelly even after heating and churning. If you have tried “flaming ice cream” at a fancy restaurant, it is thanks to the gellan gum added to it.

419: Gum Ghatti

Also known as Indian gum, gum Ghatti is yet another tree-sap derived natural gum which has been used for thousands of years. The tree is the Axlewood, or Bakli tree native to India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, and Myanmar.

420: Sorbitol

Sorbitol is a type of sweet alcohol, usually manufactured from corn starch, which the human body metabolises very slowly. In syrup form, sorbitol is a common emulsifier and humectant (moisturiser) added to peanut butter, biscuits, bread, and jam. Sorbitol has a laxative effect, to learn more read our post on prunes.

424: Curdlan

Curdlan is a gel produced by Agrobacterium bacteria which were initially discovered in human faeces.


425, 425i, 425ii: Konjac

Konjac, also known as devil’s tongue, voodoo lily, snake palm, and elephant yam, is derived from the corm or tuber of the Konjac plant. It has been eaten in Japan since the sixth century. As a food additive, it is an ingredient in weight-loss products, jelly-like confectionery, and vegan “seafood”.

432, 433, 434, 435, 436: Polysorbate

Polysorbates are made industrially through a chemical reaction between sorbitol (see code 420) and ethylene oxides. They are a chemical step further from sorbitol than sorbitan (see codes 491-495). Polysorbates have a bewildering range of uses in the food, cosmetics, medical, elastomer, nanotech, and biotech industries.

polysorbate emulsifier

This class of emulsifier is versatile because their molecules form chain networks which smoothen textures and spread ingredients evenly. Polysorbate is particularly useful in foods with artificial flavours because it is a wetting agent which helps the flavours to spread in the mouth during chewing. It also makes temperature-sensitive ingredients less prone to melt.

Polysorbates have been linked with gut inflammation and cancer in mice.

440: Pectin

Pectin is a naturally occurring dietary fibre found in many plants (apples are a rich source). At an industrial level, pectin is extracted from citrus fruits. Pectin is used extensively as a food additive, notably in jams, sauces, as it has been used for hundreds of years.

441: Gelatin

Gelatine is a gel derived from the collagen in animal tissue. It has been used as a food additive for thousands of years.

gelatin emulsifier

442: Ammonium Phosphatides

Made from glycerol and vegetable oil, ammonium phosphatides is used as an alternative to lecithin in the chocolate industry.

443: Brominated Vegetable Oil

Brominated vegetable oil, usually styled BVO, is made from vegetable oil and bromine, a halogen chemical element. BVO is used as an emulsifier in the food industry and a flame retardant in the plastics industry. It has been used in soft drinks since 1931, despite the clear and universally accepted understanding that excess consumption leads to bromism.

Bromism is a debilitating health condition caused by bromine. Bromine damages nerve structure and poisons the brain. Symptoms include restlessness, confusion, psychosis, ataxia, hallucinations, weakness and in some cases, coma. Some sufferers report nausea, anorexia, constipation, and vomiting. Headache, fatigue, memory loss and skin rashes are common misdiagnosed early symptoms.

BVO emulsifier

444: Sucrose Acetate Isobutyrate

Sucrose acetate isobutyrate is made by a chemical reaction involving sugar, vinegar, and the acid found in rancid butter. It is a non-bromide alternative to BVO (see code 443).

445: Glycerol Esters of Wood Rosins

Made by chemically reacting crude turpentine with glycerol/glycerine, glycerol esters of wood rosin is used in soft drinks in place of, or in combination with, BVO (see code 443). Crude turpentine, also known as wood rosin, is a by-product of the lumber industry.  


450, 450i, 450ii, 450iii, 450iv, 450v, 450vi, 450vii: Diphosphates

Also known as pyrophosphates, diphosphates are dissolvable metal salts which are used in many processed foods including whipped cream. Studies like this one show that diphosphates cause kidney damage.

Diphosphate Emulsifier

451i, 450ii, 450iii, 450iv, 450v: Triphosphates

2 million tonnes of triphosphates are made each year through the industrial process of heating disodium phosphate and monosodium phosphate together. Triphosphates are used to make detergents and emulsify foods which need to retain moisture. High levels of triphosphates in the blood are a recognised predictor of heart attacks and early death.

452i, 452ii, 452iii, 452iv, 452v: Polyphosphates

Polyphosphates are produced through a complicated industrial chemical process which involves carefully controlled reactions amongst a plethora of complex chemicals. According to the US FDA, the EU Scientific Committee on Food and others, they might not cause heart attacks and bone degradation if less than 40mg is consumed per day. But maybe they will. And please try not to eat more than 40mg per day.

459: Beta-Cyclodextrin

Beta-cyclodextrin is a massive sugar molecule made by the action of enzymes on starch. They work as emulsifiers by linking to both oil and water at the same time, thus preventing an oil/water mixture from separating. Beta-cyclodextrin may damage kidneys in mice and cause hearing loss in humans.

460, 460i, 460ii, 461, 462, 463, 464, 465, 466, 467, 468, 469: Cellulose

Probably the oldest, safest, most widespread emulsifier in the world, cellulose is the main structural material used by plants. Think wood, the fibres in spinach, and the chewy parts of celery. Cellulose in its pure form and in several variations with chemical tweaks is used to emulsify a wide range of processed foods. Yes, sawdust is an emulsifying food additive.

470a, 470b: Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, and Magnesium Salts of Fatty Acids

This group of “salts of fatty acids”, also known as soap, are emulsifier food additives. Yup, it is safe to add tiny amounts of soap to food for emulsification purposes. Straight-up stearate (stearic acid, the grandaddy of soaps) is also a food additive, code 570.

471: Mono and Diglycerides of Fatty Acids

“Mono and Diglycerides of Fatty Acids” is a different way of saying “oil”. The only difference between the bottle of vegetable oil in your kitchen and a bottle of Emulsifier 471 is that your kitchen oil is mostly triglycerides, and the 471 is mostly monoglycerides and diglycerides.

To make 471, put some specific enzymes to work on regular triglyceride oil.

Monoglycerides and Diglycerides are more hydrophobic than triglycerides – meaning they mix with water even less. Things coated with them become “waterproof” so that they can remain in mixture without dissolving, reacting, or separating, in other words they emulsify.

Emulsifier 471

Unlike most of the other emulsifier food additives on this page, 471 covers a huge range of substances. There are about 50 different types of oil commercially used to make mono and diglycerides of fatty acids, each with an unlimited combination of mono, di, and polyglycerides.

Therein lies one of the main health concerns with 471: you don’t know what you’re getting. The 471 could be made from pork fat or olive oil. It could be 20% coconut oil from a stinking 30-year-old vat, mixed in with the by-product of a tanning factory. All you will see on the label is: emulsifier (471).


Since 471 is simply oil, there is no limit to how much manufacturers can use in their recipes. Weight for weight, mono and diglycerides have about half the calories of regular triglyceride oil, but they still pack a hefty amount of food energy. The 471-coated fruit lumps in your cute pot of pink sweetened yoghurt might be delivering a quite different nutritional load from what you expect!

472a, 472b, 472c, 472d, 472e, 472f, 472g: Esters of Mono and Diglycerdides of Fatty Acids

Esters of mono and diglycerides of fatty acids is the result of a chemical reaction between food additive code 471 and an acid (for example, citric acid produces 472c). These different esters perform similarly to 471, but with more specialised function. For example, 472e (mono and diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono and diglycerides of fatty acids, better known as DATEM) is used to emulsify bread dough because it enhances gluten.

473, 474, 475, 476, 477, 478, 479b: Products of Fatty Acids

This group of emulsifiers are the result of chemical reactions involving “regular” oil (not mono and diglycerides of fatty acids). For example, 473 is made from sugar (sucrose) and oil (usually vegetable oil). 477 is a combination of propane (yes, barbecue gas) and oil. These lab-born emulsifiers are formulated to perform specialised, multi-objective tasks in processed foods and other industries.

Emulsifier in Cola

480: Dioctyl Sodium Sulfosuccinate

Additive 480 was born in 1937 as an aerosol detergent. Better known as Docusate, dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate is a salt often added to cheese spreads, carbonated soft drinks, and salad dressings. It has a strong laxative effect and long term consumption causes poor bowel function.

481, 482: Stearoyl-2-Lactylate

481 and 482 (commonly known as SSL and CSL) are stearoyl-2-lactylates of sodium and calcium, respectively. Lactylates are a family of chemicals developed in the 1950s for the specific purpose of increasing the shelf life of bread. The recommended safe daily consumption of 481 and 482 is 22.1mg/kg of body weight.

483: Stearyl Tartrate

Stearyl tartrate is a deceptive food additive in that it could be any or all of three different esters (distearyl tartrate, dipalmityl tartrate, and stearyl palmityl tartrate). It is not approved in Australia due to concerns that it may be a carcinogen (causes cancer). Check the label on imported foods, and when you are overseas!

487: Sodium Lauryl Sulfate

Usually, the prime lathering ingredient of shampoo and handwash, sodium lauryl sulphate sometimes spelled sulphate and called sodium dodecyl sulfate or SLS) is also an emulsifying food additive.

490, 1520: Propane-1, 2-diol

Also known as propylene glycol, propane-1,2-diol is produced in the millions of tonnes each year from petroleum. It is mainly used to make plastics, but it has many other industrial uses, including as an emulsifying food additive. It is also an indirect food additive when used for its solvent and antifreeze properties in mass food processing.

Propane emulsifier

491, 492, 493, 494, 495: Sorbitan

This group of emulsifiers are compounds of sorbitan, which like polysorbate (see codes 432-436) is a derivation of sorbitol (code 420). Sorbitan widely used, particularly 492 (sorbitan tristearate) sold under brand names like Alkest, Span, and Canarcel.

499: Stigmasterol-Rich Plant Sterols

Stigmasterol-rich plant sterols, like all phytosterols, are in the group of chemicals which functionally mimic cholesterol in humans. It is not a “pure” chemical, rather a mixture of at least four different phytosterols. Used in frozen foods, it is extracted from soybeans at an industrial level. Some research shows that elevated levels of plant sterols increases the risk of heart disease.


Calories and Carbs in Beer

Calories and Carbs in Beer

People ask us all the time: “How many calories in beer?”. It is our pleasure to present you with a comprehensive illustrated answer, the list of popular beers in Australia, ranked by calorie count. So, before you start sinking that pint of Great Northern, read this to understand how many calories there are in a beer!

Since beers come in many different sized bottles, cans, glasses, and mugs, the only way to fairly compare calories is to use the same fixed volume. This list is arranged from least calories per 100ml, to most calories per 100ml.

Remember, you can drill into more detail by finding the beer in the Food Search Box. Scroll to the bottom to see a couple of handy calories and carbs in beer charts.

Pure Blonde Premium Mid – 19 calories/100ml

Pure Blond Premium Mid

The least calorific beer, Pure Blond Premium Mid is a “mid-strength” beer with 3% alcohol and just 0.3 grams of carbohydrate per 100ml. One 355ml bottle contains 67 calories, or 282kJ.

Hahn Super Dry 3.5 – 24 calories/100ml

calories in hahn superdry beer

Another mid-strength beer, Hahn Super Dry 3.5 has 2.2 grams of carbohydrates in a 330ml bottle. The bottle contains 78 calories, which equates to 326 kilojoules.

 James Boag’s Premium Light – 24 calories/100ml

Carbs in James Boags Beer

James Boag’s Premium Light beer has a per-100ml calorie count equal to Hahn Super Dry 3.5 (24 calories/100ml), equivalent to 100kJ/100ml. A 375ml can of this 2.7% alcohol beer contains 90 calories, or 376 kilojoules.

Cascade Premium Light – 25 calories/100ml

Cascade Premium Light is a 2.6% alcohol beer which contains 9 grams of carbohydrates in a 375ml can. Each 375ml serve has 94 calories, equivalent to 386kJ.



Carlton Dry Mid – 26 calories/100ml

With 3.5% alcohol and 1.4g carbohydrate per 100ml, a 375ml can of Carlton Dry Mid has 98 calories/409 kilojoules.

Pure Blonde Low Carb – 26 calories/100ml

Calories in Pure Blonde

Pure Blonde Low Carb boasts “full strength” (4.2% alcohol) and just 0.5g carbohydrates per 100ml. One 375ml can of this beer holds 98 calories, or 409kJ and 1.88 grams of carbohydrates.

Carlton Light – 27 calories/100ml

Somewhat surprisingly, Carlton Light has slightly more calories than Carlton Dry Mid, despite having just 2.7% alcohol strength. A 375ml can of Carlton Light has 10 grams of carbs and 101 calories, which equates to 424kJ.

Great Northern Brewing Co Super Crisp Lager – 27 calories/100ml

Carbs in Great Northern Beer

This 3.5% alcohol beer contains 1.4g carbs per 100ml, or 5.25 grams per 375ml can.

Powers Gold – 27 calories/100ml

Powers Gold is a light tasting cheap beer with 101 calories/428kJ per 375ml can.



VB Gold – 27 calories/100ml

Yet another beer with 27 calories per 100ml, VB Gold comes with 9.4 grams of carbohydrates in each 375ml can.



XXXX Summer Bright Lager – 28 calories/100ml

XXXX Summer Bright Lager is a 4.2% alcohol beer with a mere 0.8g carbohydrates per 100ml. A 375ml can of this refreshing drop contains slightly more than 3g carbs.

Carlton Zero – 28 calories/100ml

Carbs in Carlton Zero

Carlton Zero is alcohol-free (zero alcohol), but it has a big 7g carbs per 100ml. Drinking one 375ml can of Carlton Zero will add 26 grams of carbohydrates to your diet.

Carlton Cold Filtered – 28 calories/100ml

There are 105 calories, or 439kJ in a 375ml can of Carlton Cold Filtered beer.

Foster’s Light Ice – 28 calories/100ml

Fosters Light Ice is a low-alcohol (2.3%) beer with 3.5g carbs per 100ml.

XXXX Gold – 29 calories/100ml

Calories in XXXX Beer

XXXX Gold, the pride of Queenslanders everywhere, contains 109 calories or 454 kilojoules per 375ml can.

Pacific Radler Lemon – 29 calories/100ml

The carbs in Pacific Radler lemon are all sugar (13 grams worth in a 375ml can), contributing the bulk of the 109 calories/454kJ per can.

Emu Draft – 30 calories/100ml

Emu Draft is a 3% alcohol beer with 30 calories, or 125 kilojoules, per 100ml. One 375ml can of Emu Draft contains 10.5g carbs, 0.4g of which is sugar.



Hahn Super Dry – 30 calories/100ml

This impressive (but bland tasting) beer boasts 4.6% alcohol and just 0.7g carbs per 100ml.

Carlton Dry Fusion Lime – 31 calories/100ml

Carlton Dry Fusion Lime surprisingly has fewer calories than Carlton Dry, despite the flavourings. One 375ml can contains 116 calories, equivalent to 488 kilojoules.

Great Northern Brewing Co Original – 31 calories/100ml

4.2% alcohol and 1.7g carbs per 100ml yield 116 calories (488kJ) per 375ml can of Great Northern Brewing Co Original.

Matilda Bay Lazy Yak – 31 calories/100ml

Calories in lazy yak Beer

Matilda Bay Lazy Yak is a 3.5% alcohol beer with 2.7g carbohydrates per 100ml. A 375ml can of Lazy Yak contains 166 calories, equal to 488 kilojoules.

Stella Artois Legere – 31 calories/100ml

Carbs in Stella Artois Legere Beer

Stella Artois Legere is the lower alcohol (3.5% vs. 4.8%) variant of the “original” Stella Artois. 100ml of Stella Artois Legere has 2.6g carbs, 31 calories, and 128 kilojoules.

Emu Bitter – 33 calories/100ml

With 8.1g carbs and 4% alcohol, Emu Bitter delivers 137 calories or 515 kilojoules per 375ml can.

Emu Export – 33 calories/100ml

Emu Export has the same calorie count as Emu Bitter, despite being a 4.2% alcohol beer (Emu Bitter has 4% alcohol). The difference is in the carbs, where Emu Export has 7.6g per 375ml can, compared to Emu Bitter’s 8.1g.

Carlton Dry – 33 calories/100ml

Carlton Dry contains 139 calories (521 kJ) per can, putting it on a par with Carlton Mid, despite having more alcohol.

Carlton Mid – 33 calories/100ml

Carlton Mid has a hefty 3.2 grams of carbohydrates per 100ml, comparable to some heavier ales. Despite the comparatively high carbs, this beer stays in the 33-calorie range on account of 3.5% alcohol.

 Fosters Classic – 33 calories/100ml

Fosters Classic, promoted overseas as being Australia’s favourite, contains 33 calories/517kJ per 100ml. If you do happen to stumble upon a 375ml can of Fosters at the Ambassador’s residence, understand that it contains 9.4g carbs.



Matilda Bay Frothy – 34 calories/100ml

The Matilda Bay brand’s answer to lager, Frothy comes with 4.2% alcohol, 9.4g carbs, 143 calories, and 536kJ per 375ml bottle.

Swan Draught – 35 calories/100ml

This ancient (in Australian terms) lager packs 4.4% alcohol and 7.9g carbs into each 375ml bottle of Swan Draught for a total of 146 calories, or 546 kilojoules.

Cascade Bitter – 35 calories/100ml

This Tassie special is a 4.4% alcohol beer with 35 calories or 146 kilojoules per 100ml. One 375ml can of Cascade Bitter contains fully 9 grams of carbohydrates.

Matilda Bay Wild Yak – 35 calories/100ml

Matilda Bay Wild Yak is a 4.2% alcohol American-style pale ale which weighs in at just over 10 grams of carbs per 100ml. One 345ml bottle of Wild Yak has 131 calories which is equivalent to 551 kilojoules.

West End Draught – 35 calories/100ml

Taking this left turn results in a 375ml can of West End Draught containing 552kJ (147 calories) and 8.2g of carbohydrates.

James Boag’s Draught – 36 calories/100ml

This Tasmanian beer came to light in 1990 following the “draught beer” craze of the period. James Boag’s Draft, with 36 calories/152kJ per 100ml, contains fewer calories than James Boag’s Premium.

Tooheys Extra Dry – 36 calories/100ml

Crispy clean TED contains 125 calories, or 523 kilojoules, in each 345ml bottle.



Tooheys Old – 36 calories/100ml

Tooheys Old is a dark ale modelled on the first beer brewed by the Tooheys in 1869. One 375ml serving contains 9.3g carbs, 136 calories and 569 kilojoules.

Bulimba Gold Top Pale Ale – 36 calories/100ml

It is called Gold Top because they used to put gold-coloured bottle caps on the beers they started pasteurising in 1898 (the non-pasteurised ones had red tops). Bulimba Gold Top Pale Ale has 12g of carbohydrates in each 375ml can.

Richmond Lager – 36 calories/100ml

An American-style beer, 4.5% alcohol Richmond Lager contains 2.6g carbs, 36 calories, 152kJ per 100ml.

James Squire 150 Lashes Pale Ale – 37 calories/100ml

This easy-drink beer is a 4.2% alcohol cloudy pale ale containing 9g carbs in each 345ml bottle.

Little Creatures Rogers – 37 calories/100ml

Little Creatures Rogers is a red ale brewed in Fremantle. One 330ml bottle contains 122 calories, equivalent to 509 kilojoules. The density of Rogers is reflected in the 11 grams of carbohydrates in each bottle.

Abbots Lager – 37 calories/100ml

An ill-fated, ill-conceived, and ill-tasting brew, when available Abbots Lager is a 4.5% alcohol beer which contains 10.5g carbs per 375ml bottle.

Carlton Draught – 37 calories/100ml

Calories in Carlton Draught Beer

The massively popular and outrageously good tasting Carlton Draught contains 139 calories, or 581 kilojoules per 375ml can. There are 2.7g of carbohydrates per 100ml in this 4.7% alcohol beer.

Miller Chill – 37 calories/100ml

Do not be fooled by the “low carb” marketing, Miller Chill packs almost 4 grams of sugar in 9.9g carbohydrates per 330ml bottle. 37 calories per 100ml of this 4% alcohol sickly sweet, flavoured lager-style beer equates to 155kJ.

Matilda Bay Beez Neez – 38 calories/100ml

It is surprising that Beez Neez honey flavoured pale ale has comparatively little sugar – just 0.2g per 100ml. One 375ml bottle of this 4.7% alcohol beer contains 10.13g carbohydrates, 143 calories, equal to 589 kilojoules.



Cascade Draught – 38 calories/100ml

Cascade Draught is another 4.7% alcohol beer, with a touch more than 10 grams of carbs per 100ml, good for 38 calories/158kJ.

Tooheys New – 38 calories/100ml

Tooheys New is a delicious 4.6% alcohol lager which has been “NEW” since 1931. One 375ml bottle of Tooheys New contains 9.2g carbs, 143 calories, or 593 kilojoules.

Ballarat Bitter – 38 calories/100ml

Beautiful Ballarat Bitter featuring Ballarat Bertie on the label is a fine drop if you can find it. Each 375ml can packs 4.6% alcohol, 10.88g carbs, 143 calories, or 593kJ.

Kent Old Brown – 38 calories/100ml

The rich aroma of Kent Old Brown promises so much more than its taste delivers. 3.2g of carbohydrates, 4.4% alcohol, 38 calories/158kJ per 100ml make for an ultimately underwhelming beer.

Melbourne Bitter – 38 calories/100ml

Melbourne Bitter, virtually unknown outside of deep Victoria is a 4.6% bitter lager hopped with “Pride of Ringwood” hops. Each 375ml stubbie contains 143 calories, or 593kJ and almost 11 grams of carbohydrates.

Little Creatures Pilsner – 38 calories/100ml

This Fremantle beer is a refreshingly bitter 4.6% alcohol pilsner. One 330ml bottle of Little Creatures Pilsner contains 126 calories, or 528 kilojoules.



Carlton Black Ale – 38 calories/100ml

Carlton Black Ale contains 12.4 grams of carbohydrates per 375ml bottle, contributing to 143 calories, or 603kJ.

Cascade Lager – 38 calories/100ml

Cascade Lager (“Blue” to the initiated) is a simple 4.8% alcohol lager containing 10.13g carbs, and 143 calories/603kJ per 375ml bottle or can.

Budweiser – 39 calories/100ml

This weak tasting 4.5% alcohol pale lager is apparently quite popular overseas. A 330ml bottle of Budweiser has 129 calories, or 531 kilojoules.

Kosciuszko Pale Ale – 39 calories/100ml

Kosciuszko Pale Ale turns out to be the real deal – a cloudy, fruity ale with a decidedly Australian character. Each 330ml bottle contains 9.1g carbs, 162 calories, or 535 kilojoules.

James Boag’s Premium – 39 calories/100ml

A full 5% alcohol beer, James Boag’s Premium is a Tassie stunner with subtle flavour and a deliciously smooth finish. Besides extreme drinkability, you will find 8.7g of carbohydrates and 146 calories/611kJ in each 375ml bottle.

Kirin Megumi – 39 calories/100ml

Kirin Megumi, another 5% alcohol beer, contains 7.9g carbs per 330ml bottle. “Megumi” means “Blessing” or “Grace” in Japanese, and whilst not a religious experience per se this first press lager does not disappoint. 130 calories/542kJ per bottle.

James Squire The Chancer Golden Ale – 40 calories/100ml

James Squire The Chancer is arguably the most golden-coloured beer in Australia. Each 4.5% alcohol 345ml bottle contains 138 calories, equivalent to 576kJ.

Stella Artois – 40 calories/100ml

The world’s best-selling Belgian beer weighs in at 3.2g carbs, 40 calories, 168kJ per 100ml.



Miller Genuine Draft – 40 calories/100ml

If you like the taste of good beer, and you do not like the taste of bad beer, then don’t drink Miller Genuine Draft.

Victoria Bitter – 40 calories/100ml

Big VB is a 4.98% alcohol lager with 11.63g carbs, 150 calories, 634 kilojoules per 375ml stubbie.

Matilda Bay Fat Yak – 40 calories/100ml

Matilda Bay Fat Yak is a low-sugar, high carb, fruity pale ale in a 345ml bottle. One bottle holds 150 calories, 634kJ, 12.75g carbs, and 0.08g sugar.

White Rabbit White Ale – 41 calories/100ml

White Rabbit White Ale is a German-style wheat beer with 4.5% alcohol, 11.3g carbs, 134 calories,or 562kJ per 330ml bottle.

Cascade Pale Ale – 41 calories/100ml

Cascade Pale Ale lays claim to the title “Oldest Beer in Australia”. It is an uncomplicated ale with 5% alcohol and 11.25g carbs per 375ml bottle.

Crown Lager – 41 calories/100ml

Crown lager’s fancy bottle and upper-class marketing belie an insipid brew. Each 4.9% alcohol 375ml bottle contains 154 calories, or 642 kilojoules.



Matilda Bay Redback Original – 41 calories/100ml

Perhaps Australia’s first ever “craft” beer, Matilda Bay Redback Original is a wheat beer with 4.7% alcohol, 3.6g carbohydrates, and 41 calories/172kJ per 100ml.

Becks – 42 calories/100ml

Becks is a thoroughly inoffensive German-style pilsner with 5% alcohol and 3g carbs per 100ml.

Corona Extra – 42 calories/100ml

Despite its light, refreshing persona, 4.5% ABV Corona Extra is stuffed with carbs (fully 4g/100ml!). One 355ml bottle of this beer contains 14.2g of carbohydrates to generate 149 calories, or 624kJ.

White Rabbit Belgian Pale Ale – 44 calories/100ml

White Rabbit Belgian Pale Ale is brewed in Healsville, not (Aus, not Belgium). 4.9% alcohol content with 146 calories/609kJ per 330ml bottle.

Matilda Bay Ruby Tuesday – 44 calories/100ml

Matilda Bay Ruby Tuesday is an American-style dark wheat beer with 4.4g carbs per 100ml. One 345ml bottle contains 152 calories, or 635 kilojoules.

Hoegaarden White – 45 calories/100ml

Hoegaarden White is the grandaddy of Belgian white wheat beers, with a 600 plus year history. Back then, people were not concerned with calories in beer and it shows in this 4.9% ABV lip smacker. One 330ml bottle contains 11.8g of carbohydrates which contribute to the 149 calories/617kJ.

Abbotsford Invalid Stout – 45 calories/100ml

Drink this 5.2% ABV beer if you like the taste of vegemite. A 375ml bottle of Abbotsford Invalid Stout contains 14.25g of carbs, 169 calories/701kJ, but just 0.04g of sugar.



White Rabbit Dark Ale – 45 calories/100ml

White Rabbit Dark Ale is an award-winning brown ale with 12.6g of carbohydrates in a 330ml bottle. Each bottle contains 150 calories, or 625 kilojoules.

Matilda Bay Alpha Pale Ale – 47 calories/100ml

Matilda Bay Alpha Pale Ale contains so many carbs that it is almost chewy. One 345ml bottle of this bitter, fruity, 5.2% alcohol beer contains 14.8g of carbohydrates and 162 calories/676kJ.

Little Creatures Pale Ale – 47 calories/100ml

Little Creatures Pale Ale is an utterly delicious beer, so it is a pity that it packs such a potent calorie punch. One 330ml bottle (5.2% ABV) contains 12.8g carbs and 156 calories/651kJ.

Carlton Hard – 48 calories/100ml

Carlton Hard makes it easy to drink 180 calories (746kJ) and 10g carbs in one 375ml can of 6.5% ABV beer.

Matilda Bay Dogbolter – 50 calories/100ml

Run away if you see this Dogbolter – it is fully 5% carbs paired with 5.2% ABV. A 345ml bottle of Matilda Bay Dogbolter has 17.25g carbs and 173 calories, equal to 714 kilojoules.

Cascade Stout – 51 calories/100ml

Cascade Stout is a rich 5.8% alcohol beer that should really be sold in a smaller bottle. How can we justify 375ml when one serve yields 16.88g carbohydrates and 191 calories (799kJ)?

 Little Creatures IPA – 53 calories/100ml

Yes, Little Creatures IPA tastes heavenly, but the calories are positively sinful. 6.4% ABV, 2g sugar and 3.5g carbs per 100ml mean that each 330ml bottle packs a whopping 174 calories, or 729 kilojoules.



Carbs in Beer

This chart shows a comparison of carbohydrates in Australia’s popular beers, ranked in ascending order. Pure Blond Premium Mid has the least carbs per 100ml, whilst Carlton Zero has the most.

Carbs in beer

Calories in Beer

See the chart below to see a quick comparison of calories in popular Australian beers, ranked from fewest calories per 100ml to most. Pure Blond Premium Mid has the smallest calorie count, Little Creatures IPA has the most.

Calories in Beer



Lose Weight Fast

47 Easiest Ways to Lose Your Toxic Weight Fast!

We need to know how to lose weight fast, because sometimes the urge rushes over us and we must suddenly just do something about excess fat. Too much body fat is bad for your health, you know it! This list is for times like now, when we want fast, sensible, evidence-based action tips we can follow right now, this minute! Still reading the intro? Stop reading the intro! Get onto it!

Get Real to Lose Weight Fast

1. Get Real

Real weight loss demands real commitment and real action. You cannot score when you are sitting on the bench or relegated to the sin bin. A journey of a thousand miles begins with the first step. Nothing ventured, nothing gained. You’ve heard all the tropes before, but hard truths are cliché for a reason. The first way to lose weight fast is to want to lose weight so badly, that you act. The initial fire and determination won’t last but solid planned and prepared action will. Do Number One and Number Two and any five others from this list to lose weight fast*.

Record Your Meals

2. Record What you Eat to Lose Weight Fast

Whether or not you go on a diet, or actively count calories with our tracker, or consciously make food calorie choices, you should record your meals. Write everything you eat in a personal food diary. It is not hard to do and you don’t need to use it for the rest of your life. Keeping a food diary is just about the only uncontested, incontrovertible, rock-solid, proven way to sustainably lose weight fast. After a few days of diligently recording yourself, you will lead yourself to lower calories. No celebrity lifestyle coach required.

Eat Spicy Food

3. Feel the Burn! Eat Capsaicin Often

Spicy food which contains capsaicin (the spicy thing in chili peppers) will help you to lose weight faster than otherwise. As with many of the other tips on this list, there is scientific evidence both for and against the weight-loss effect of capsaicin. Even if spicy food does not chemically “burn fat” or speed your metabolism if it is spicy enough you will naturally eat less food. This is because you are likely to eat slower and sip water in between mouthfuls, so you will feel fuller faster.

Do Not Eat Cheese

4. Cut the Cheese

Cheese is high calorie concentrated milk which adds big-time calories to everyday food like sandwiches, pizza, and pasta. Cut cheese out fast to lose weight fast. It is an entirely avoidable food. Get your macros and calcium elsewhere. Cheese is not your friend when you are trying to cut the kilos.

Eat Dietary Fiber

5. Fibre is Your Friend

The defining feature of dietary fibre is its toughness. It is tough to chew, tough to break down in the stomach, and tough to digest in the intestines. It is so tough, that we need help from friendly gut bacteria, which symbiotically live inside of us, munching on the tough fibre we eat. That fibre soaks up water and takes a long time and a lot of energy to digest. For all the while it lingers inside, it occupies space that might otherwise be filled with pies and cheesecake. For this reason alone, replace soft food with fibre-rich food to lose weight fast.



6. Want to Lose Weight Fast? Then Drink up!

Water and water-based drinks are an obvious solution for the incessant consumer of small snacks. There is a good reason that study after study reveals that people who constantly sip water throughout the day lose weight faster than people who do not. Yes, water is essential for life and will promote health in a myriad of ways, but its most important function from a weight-loss perspective is the space it takes up. When you start sloshing around with a bellyful of water, you are less likely to reach for the bikkies. One ham sandwich seems to fill the gap where before two did the job. That sneaky second serve of risotto becomes less desirable. Drink water to trick your stomach and fool your lizard brain.

Change your Routine

7. Break your Routine

First, look at your excess weight, then come to a logical understanding: the choices you have made have led to this situation. So, make different choices to end the situation and create a new, better one. Different choices mean doing different things, and doing different things means breaking old routines and leaving timeworn comfort zones. Wake up earlier and go to bed earlier. Stop ordering delivery food and start cooking more. Stop eating high calorie snacks and start eating low calorie snacks.

Get some sun to lose weight FAST

8. Feel the Morning Sun on your Skin

There is good evidence that people who get some sun in the morning lose weight faster than those who do not. Maybe it is because of more Vitamin D, or maybe the sun has an effect of making a healthier circadian rhythm, or maybe morning sunbathers are just more active. For whatever the reason, it works. A quick walk around the block on a sunny morning can only do you good.

Do Not Eat Dessert

9. Ditch Desserts

Unless you are a medieval king or queen entertaining errant knights at a round royal banquet table, dessert should not be a thing you do. The whole concept of a meal being comprised of more than one “course” should be scrubbed from your worldview. Desserts are a cruel sweet trap for people who want to lose weight fast. Black coffee or lemon water does the job of rounding out the palate just as well as any sickly-sweet treat. Eradicate the nasty anachronistic dessert custom without mercy. If some unsavvy person offers one, decline with a cold stare and perhaps an under-breath mutter “I don’t do desserts”.

Use smaller plates

10. Use Smaller Plates

Perhaps amazingly, this simple trick works to fool your brain into thinking that you have had enough. Without over-thinking it, serve your normal everyday food on smaller plates and bowls. You don’t need to try hard to put less food on the smaller plate. In fact, for the first few days, make a conscious effort to heap it up higher than you would with your normal plate. After a while, you will naturally and painlessly start eating less. Combined with other strategies, using a smaller plate is a sure-fire way to lose weight fast.



11. Not Hungry? Then Don’t Eat

If, for whatever reason, you do not feel hungry when you usually eat a meal or snack, don’t eat. Sometimes, skipping a regular snack or extending the time between meals has a powerful positive effect on your body’s metabolism. There is usually a good physical reason why you do not feel hungry: you don’t need food right now. When you don’t need food in the moment, your body finds a way to store it for when you need it later. When that later needed moment does not come, you get fat. We humans are not battery-driven machines which require a set amount of charge over a specific period to function at optimal capacity. Instead, “listen” to what your body is telling you and don’t eat when you are not hungry.

Lose Weight Fast eat Salad first

12. Eat Salad or Fruit before your Main Meal

Low-calorie, fibre-rich food like leafy salads, steamed greens, and peel-on apples are a good addition to your main meal. Thoughtfully chew the lightly dressed salad or the raw fruit to get the digestion juices flowing and your satiety signals firing up before you tuck into your meat and potatoes. You will find it much easier to stick to whatever pre-planned meal portion has been laid out in front of you. If, afterwards you still feel hungry, eat more salad with no dressing before you leave the table.

Take the Stairs

13. Take the Stairs

Climbing stairs is a wonderful exercise which strengthens leg and back muscles whilst giving you a good cardio workout. It is just the type of quick, exertion activity that gives the metabolism a jolt like a high intensity workout. One of the fundamentals of losing weight fast is to somehow increase one’s Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR). Climbing stairs regularly will force your body to prepare for future climbs by increasing BMR. Best of all, if you work or live in a multi-story building you can gradually integrate regular stair climbing into your lifestyle. No special kit required!

Drink Black Coffee to Lose Weight

14. Drink Coffee

Several credible studies have shown that coffee drinkers lose weight faster than people who abstain from the roasted bean. (Note that milky coffee will have the opposite effect, we are talking about the pure stuff here!) In addition to the filling effect of any low-calorie drink, the caffeine in coffee causes an elevated heart rate and thus greater energy burn. It is also possible that other chemical constituents of coffee serve to stimulate the metabolism. To top it off, coffee has a diuretic effect, making it easier to lose water weight.

Wear Casual Clothes

15. Wear Casual Clothes

Yes, its true, people who look as though they are dressed for exercise tend to exercise more. It is a simple truth that you will be less inclined to take the stairs, trot down to the corner shop, or run for the bus when you are dressed in your formal best. If you make a habit of wearing comfortable, flexible clothing you will find yourself being more active than otherwise. If possible, opt for T shirt and jeans rather than a business suit, and keep Casual Fridays sacred.



16. Spray your Oil, don’t Pour it

 For something that does not show up as a mouthful in your meal, cooking oil packs a serious calorie punch. When pan-frying or barbecuing, try to use as little oil as you can get away with. The aerosol spray-can oil is a better choice than using a basting brush or pouring a big glug from the bottle. Use cooking oil sparingly and consider using substitutes whenever possible.  

Do Not Drink Cocktails

17. Drink Straight instead of Cocktails

Light beer, neat spirits, and alcohol served on the rocks or with plain water are much less calorific than mixed drinks. The problem with cocktails is that they invariably involve sugar in large quantities. Sweet fizzy drinks mixed with alcohol combine the fast-burn calories of sugar with the powerful “hidden” calories in alcohol. Stick with a slow-sip hard liquor on the rocks instead of a large Pina Colada to lose weight fast.

Wear a Belt to Lose Weight Fast

18. Wear a Belt

 Wearing a non-stretchy belt as part of your daily ensemble is a good idea when you are trying to lose weight. You will feel the belt biting in slightly when your abdomen expands with food and drink. Sometimes, we need a little reminder that we don’t have to finish the lunch box if we have already eaten enough. Belts with buckle-holes are the best choice, because few things are as motivational as pondering an old belt with exposed well-worn holes.

Gut Bacteria

19. Eat Probiotics and Prebiotics

There is evidence to show that a flourishing gut biome promotes weight loss. What does this mean? It seems that in some cases, simply improving your gut health directly causes you to lose weight. Yes, it might also be true that the lifestyle and diet changes you make to acquire a healthy gut are the main cause of the weight loss. In either case, eating helpful live bacteria (probiotics) and food to feed said bacteria (prebiotics) will help you to lose weight fast. The best probiotics are natural yoghurts, fermented vegetables like kimchi and sauerkraut, and the occasional sourdough slice. Good prebiotics for weight loss are everyday low-calorie vegetables like onions, kale and cabbage with two or three serves of beans per week.

Open Sandwich to Lose Weight Fast

 20. Make Open Sandwiches

If you are in the habit of eating sandwiches, get into the habit of eating them open. This means that you forget the top slice and instead add a low-calorie garnish to the filling to make it pretty enough to savour. Not only will you cut the bread calories in half, but you will eat more carefully, slowing down to balance your now-delicate sandwich. You might be surprised to find that an open sandwich can be just as satisfying as a double-decker. Open sandwiches (single slice) are the real secret behind all those healthy low-calorie Instagram pics.



21. Sleep Well to Lose Weight Fast

Good, long sleep is essential when you want to lose weight fast. There is no way for your body to find a natural circadian rhythm and metabolic/hormonal balance when you are sleep-deprived and “out of sync”. Research into sleep and the endocrine system shows that people who sleep well can lose weight faster than those who get poor-quality sleep. You can get better sleep by not eating anything at least an hour before bedtime.

Early Dinners are Best

22. Have an Early Dinner

Having an early dinner will allow your digestion system to settle down well before bed, promoting a better night’s sleep. Early dinners also allow for an easier, snack-free period after lunch. Best of all, eating your dinner early will increase your fast time before breakfast. Growing research into intermittent fasting suggests that going without food for a 10+hour stretch triggers beneficial hormones which help you to lose weight fast.

Morning Run Exercise

23. Exercise in the Morning

Morning exercise beats evening exercise because you get to extend the benefit of your workout into the other active parts of your day. If you are going to work up a sweat and get the blood flowing, why not use that momentum to keep going with an active mindset, rather get ready for bed? Remember that the best weight loss effect of exercise is not the calories you burn during your workout, but how the exercise raises your BMR over time. Staying active after a good workout will signal to your body’s systems: “We need to upgrade this thing! Ratchet up that BMR!”

Half a Loaf of Bread

24. Cut your Starch in Half

If you are serious about losing weight fast, cut your starch portion in half when eating regular main meals. Whatever the starch source (rice, bread, pasta, potato, etc.), just cut the portion in half. Even if you make up the space difference on your plate with your protein source, you will end up eating far fewer calories per meal over time. For best results, replace the lost starch half-portion with an equal half-portion of fibre-rich vegetables or lean protein.

Be Stress Free

25. Don’t Stress

One of the body’s responses to stress is to release cortisol (a stress hormone) into the bloodstream. Cortisol slows your metabolism down. Slower metabolisms burn energy at a lower rate than healthy, stress-free ones, so it becomes harder to lose weight. If you want to lose weight fast, try to avoid stress. Take walks, spend quality time with friends and family, or try meditation.



26. Picture your Food

Literally taking pictures of your food will help with your weight loss goals. You don’t have to post the pictures on social media, but it could reinforce your motivation. The pictures work the same way that a food diary does, by making you more accountable to yourself. This practice works even better when you try to plate your food in an attractive arrangement. Being thoughtful when it comes to meals is a big step towards taking control of one’s calorie intake.

Drink Green Tea to Lose Weight Fast

27. Sip Green Tea

There are scientific studies which show that the catechins (a type of antioxidant) in tea have the effect of speeding human metabolism. In addition to catechins, tea also contains caffeine, a well-known stimulant which has a positive impact on the rate of metabolism. These combined effects, together with green tea’s impressive hydration qualities, make it a great choice to sip throughout the day. Sugarless, milk-free green tea makes a zero-calorie drink which can be drunk in large quantities without bad side-effects. Have fun finding your perfect taste blend and make it a habit!

Artificial Sweetener

28. Avoid Artificial Sweeteners

This one is tricky, because artificial sweeteners have practically zero calories so why would you avoid them when you want to lose weight fast? Because chemistry. Artificial sweeteners are many thousands of times sweeter than natural sugar on a weight for weight basis. Your tastebuds instantly recognise this fact and respond positively, so that after a few days of using the intense artificial sweeteners, you develop a taste for incredible sweetness. Without thinking about it, you will find yourself gravitating towards all the real sugar-laden food options in front of you. You end up dodging a teaspoon of sugar in your coffee, only to get hit with a triple-glazed chocolate cronut. In case you’re wondering, yes, there are studies to support this sugar taste compensation effect.

Skip Breakfast

29. Skip a Breakfast

Like all the tips on this list, this one should be followed carefully, after receiving proper medical advice. The idea behind skipping a breakfast or two per week is that your body will have gone more than ten hours between meals (assuming you don’t sleep-eat) if you can manage the skip. This time gap between meals is the aim of what is now being called “intermittent fasting”. It has been found that your body will become more efficient at burning its excess fat reserves when in a state of fast. Research seems to show that periodic fasters lose weight faster than non-fasters even when they eat the same number of calories per week.

Brush your Teeth soon after dinner to lose weight fast

30. Brush your Teeth Soon after Dinner

Brushing your teeth soon after dinner, rather than just before you go to bed, can nudge you towards having a snack-free evening. Late night snacks are often an easy, lazy option for when you are feeling low-energy and relaxed. Use the mood to your advantage, because who wants to have to re-brush their teeth after eating a bag of microwaved butter popcorn? Brushing your teeth early might also signal an earlier bedtime. Besides, the toothpaste’s minty aftertaste disincentivises sneaky snacking.



31. Drink Water before you Eat

The idea behind drinking a glass of water before you eat is a simple one. The water rushes into your stomach and takes up real estate and starts to stretch things out. There are stretch receptors in the stomach which signal “fullness” to the brain. These receptors cannot tell the difference between water and pancakes, so you might just feel sated enough to stop after the first syrupy hotcake.

Kitten Sleeping in a Warm Room

32. Don’t Sleep in a Warm Room

The “average” person burns the equivalent of a slice of toast in calories when they sleep each night. You can turn that slice into a slice and a quarter or more if you force your body to work a little harder when you sleep. You can do this by sleeping in a cooler room than you’re used to. Your body will work harder to maintain its temperature, and over time you will use more calories and lose weight faster.

Eat 25g protein to lose weight fast

33. Eat 25 grams of Protein with Each Meal

Multiple studies demonstrate that protein makes you feel fuller than carbohydrates. This is the basis for many of the current wave of high-protein diets. You can easily take advantage of protein’s powers of satiation by simply eating more of it in comparison to your usual intake. For best results, aim for 25g of protein per meal whilst keeping to an overall calorie target. Over a couple of days, you will feel more satisfied with your meals so you will find it easier to control your calories and lose weight fast.

Second Helping of Quiche

34. No Second Helpings

Serving yourself the right portion of food in the first place is a much better strategy than under-serving the first time around. It is a mistake to dish out a tiny portion in the hope that you will suddenly develop superhuman willpower and be satisfied with a couple of mouthfuls. Unfortunately, all you’re doing is pre-empting a justified second helping which will overcompensate and dwarf the correct food portion. Then, you will be demotivated and track back to the comfort zone of overeating. Think twice, serve once, don’t think once, and serve twice.

Cow Chewing Slowly

35. Chew. Food. Slowly. Lose Weight Fast.

Being mindful of every mouthful of food is a powerful way to control calories and lose weigh fast. Savour each bite and chew until the food seems to swallow itself. If you are in the habit of eating too quickly, try counting your chews for a couple of days. There is no right number of chews, but you will become more conscious and slower if you count each full jaw movement. The point of chewing slowly is that your digestive system will have more time to send satiety signals to your brain before you finish your meal. Slow chewers feel fuller than gulpers, so they naturally eat less and lose weight faster.

Eating Popcorn Watching a Movie

36. Don’t Eat Whilst Entertained

Eating whilst under the influence of music, television, movies, and other entertainment has been studied. The results are just about unanimous: people eat more when they are entertained. One of the main reasons seems to be that the brain works hard to process the entertainment, so it is less able to manage portion control. The feeling of having had enough to eat is drowned out by the excitement of the entertainment. Anyone who has made it to the other side of a Netflix binge and wondered where all the lollies went can relate. If you feel like snacking in front of the screen, hit the pause button.



37. Cut Sodium to Lose Water Weight

By far the fastest way to drop a kilo is to lose some water weight. “Water weight” is the weight of excess water stored in between your body tissues. Ideally, the water should be processed by the kidneys and released out of the body, but it becomes “trapped” by extra sodium and glycogen. Reducing the amount of sodium in your body, by simply eating less of it, will allow the water to flush out. It is possible to lose up to two kilograms in water weight within a week of starting a low sodium diet. A simple way to eat less sodium is to purposefully avoid processed foods. Most of the excess sodium in our modern diets comes from “hidden” sodium in processed food – read our sodium converter post to learn more.

Lift Weights to Lose Weight Fast

38. Lift Heavy Weights

Remember that BMR (Basal Metabolic Rate) is the underlying rate at which your body burns energy, and thus the ultimate driver of calorie burn. Your body needs certain types of cells to put food energy to work. Perhaps the most important type of energy burning cell is the muscle cell. Simply put, the more, bigger, and stronger muscle cells you have, the more energy you can burn. Growing muscle will also grow your BMR. One of the fastest ways to grow muscle is to do weight training. Lift heavy weights to increase BMR!

Eat a Rainbow

39. Five Colours per Day

Beginning each day with the intention of eating at least five different naturally coloured foods is a good way to bolster your weight loss effort. Thinking about and finding five different colours to eat will invariably make one more careful about what to eat. High-fibre, low-calorie fruit and vegetables are likely to feature prominently in a five-colour food day. “Eating the rainbow” is just another arrow in this quiver of healthy eating habits which will allow you to lose weight fast.

Do Not Eat after dinner

40. No Food After Dinner

Unlike a simple machine, the human body works in a series of biocycles, one of which is the circadian rhythm. Body cycles enable certain processes to occur at optimal times when specific internal conditions are present. For example, the brain “cleanses” and resets when we are asleep rather than when we are driving on the interstate. It would be horribly inefficient and dangerous if our brains decided to start dreaming at any given time, on a whim. New research is indicating that processing food, storing calories, and burning fat are optimised in cycles too. It seems that eating in the late hours, soon before bed, is a bad idea from a weight loss perspective. Get all your daily calories in by the end of dinner if you are serious about losing weight fast.

Dip Do Not Pour

 41. Dip into Dressing and Sauce

The condiments, sauces, gravies, and dressings of any meal are usually the most calorific components by weight. Oily dressings and sauce like mayonnaise and vinaigrette can easily turn a low-calorie meal into something like this monster Caesar Salad. The best way to enjoy sauces and dressings is to order them “on the side”, then dip judiciously. When you are done with the meal, you can look at the remaining uneaten dip and give yourself a pat on the back for dodging those calories.

Eat Protein when Hungry

42. Eat Protein when you are Hungry

Hunger is a basic, animal feeling that by nature is one of the most uncomfortable feelings possible. At a primal level, we want to satisfy our hunger as fast as possible with as much food as possible. That is why it is important to eat the type of food which sates the fastest: protein. Studies show that fewer protein calories are required to satisfy hunger compared to carbs and fat. You feel “fuller” after eating 300 calories worth of roast beef compared to downing 300 calories of cupcake. Simply put, you are less likely to overcompensate your hunger if you satisfy it with protein rather than carbohydrates.

43. Swap Dinner Starch for Vegetable

Replacing your dinner starch with vegetable could be a game-changer. Examples of ways to do this: substitute rice for cauliflower rice, noodles with konjac noodles, and mashed potato with mashed turnip. The vegetables will provide a sense of fullness which will tide you over to bedtime. The calorie shortfall will hit whilst you are asleep and less likely to snack. If you try this trick at lunch or breakfast, it will be too easy to snack a couple of hours afterwards.

Get off your chair to Lose Weight Fast

44. Get Up Off that Chair

If your occupation demands that you spend hours at a time sitting down, it will be harder to lose weight fast. Even if you exercise vigorously during other parts of the day, sitting in one spot for extended time periods negatively affects your metabolism. Without getting into the details of cellular chemistry, suffice to say that your overall metabolic rate slows down if you don’t move your limbs every waking minute. In our prehistoric past, even our rest periods were dominated by movement and activity. Our bodies are designed to move constantly, so when we don’t the internal calorie burn rate slows down and muscle health deteriorates. Don’t spend more than 20 minutes sitting, even if you just stand up then sit back down, your waistline will thank you for the activity.



45. Read Every Food Label

Food labels exist to inform, so make full use of them! If you get into the habit of reading every food label before you buy and before you eat a product, you will naturally start to lose weight. Why? Because you will become more aware of your food energy and nutrition, then eat accordingly. Being informed is the basis of making food choices which suit your desired nutrition outcome. If you want to lose weight fast, you need to know what you are eating. It may seem obvious, but many people don’t appreciate that food is different, that Brand X has more calories than Brand Y, or Brand A contains twice as much sodium as Brand B. Use our Food Search Box to plan your shopping list if you prefer not to spend too much time in the supermarket.

Plan to Lose Weight Fast

46. Plan to Lose Weight Fast

To lose weight fast, you must plan. Planning your calorie intake is the crucial part of any diet, because as the old saying goes, failing to plan is planning to fail. A plan sets out your goal and the actions you must take to achieve said goal. Whether you call it a meal plan, a diet, a battle plan, a weekly menu, or whatever suits your fancy, make one. You can make a structured plan based on generally accepted formulae (like our Calorie Tracker does), or you can devise your own plan on the back of an envelope. At its most basic level, your plan should include your target body weight and your daily calorie limit. Whatever plan you come up with, dig deep, and try to execute it.

Never Give Up

47. Don’t Give Up

Here’s a newsflash: diets usually don’t work. That does not mean that you should give up. It means that you should mix things up and keep trying. If you don’t give up, the best-case scenario is that you lose weight fast, make sustainable lifestyle changes, and your health blossoms forever. If you do give up and make no changes, the only scenario is that your weight today is the best it will ever be.

Now, get yourself a free Calorie Tracker account if you don’t have one yet!

*Always consult your medical professional before making drastic lifestyle changes which may affect your health.



Flour in Australia

Flour in Australia Q & A

In Australia we often come across recipes, food labels, and informative articles about flour which make us go hmmmm? Flour is different around the world, so finding the right nutrition information can be a challenge. Let’s try to clear some confusion with a quick flour Q&A:

Q: What is Cornstarch?

A: Grind the starchy part of corn (maize) kernels to make cornstarch. In Australia, we usually call corn starch “cornflour”. Cornstarch and Cornflour are the same thing. Confusingly, “corn flour” sold in Australia used to be made from wheat, rather than corn. Today, however, popular corn-flour/corn-starch products are in fact made from corn, as you can see from this ingredient list. Corn starch often serves to thicken sauces, soups, gravies, and casseroles. Corn flour added to cakes lightens their texture (by reducing the protein level, see cake flour question below). Feel free to make a straight swap of cornflour for cornstarch, available from supermarkets like Woolworths and Coles!

Cornstarch Cornflour in Australia

There are 365 calories, or 1529 kilojoules, in 100g of corn flour.

Q: What is All Purpose Flour called in Australia?

A: Call All Purpose Flour “Plain Flour” in Australia and you will be talking about the same thing. It is the basic, go-to flour for use with most simple recipes which call for “all-purpose” or just plain “flour”. Some people call All Purpose, or Plain Flour, “AP Flour”. Plain flour is a blend of fine ground wheat endosperm. It can be used for just about any purpose flour is usually called for, including bread, cakes, cookies, thickening, and so on. The fact that it is a general, or all-purpose, flour means that it is not a great “specialist flour”, for example its coarser grind makes it less suitable than cornflour for thickening.

All Purpose Flour Plan Flour in Australia

There are 357 calories, or 1498kJ per 100 grams of plain flour.

Q: What is Bakers Flour in Australia?

A: Bakers Flour is a hard flour, also known as Bread Flour, so called because it is good for making bread, pizza bases, and other chewy baked goods. Baker’s Flour is sometimes called High Protein Flour in Australia. Manufacturers blend wheat flour which has a high (11%-16%) protein content to make baker’s flour. The proteins (a.k.a. gluten) form a network of strands, especially when the baker’s flour dough is kneaded, to make the product stretchy and chewy. You can use baker’s or bread flour instead of plain flour, but not for cakes or anything less hefty than a slice of focaccia. Chewy cake is not cake. Plain flour can be substituted for baker’s flour, but the resultant food will be less flexible and durable.

Bakers Flour in Australia

There are 356 calories (1490kJ) in each 100g of baker’s flour.

Q: What is Self Raising Flour in Australia?

A: Self-raising flour is plain flour with leavening (or raising) agents like baking powder added. Outside of Australia, Self-Raising Flour is often called Self-Rising Flour. The actual raising agents used in self-raising flour vary by manufacturer, so sometimes different brands produce different results for the same recipe. You should not swap self raising flour for plain flour in a recipe which does not include the addition of baking powder, baking soda, cream of tartar, bicarbonate of soda, yeast, or any other raising agent. If the recipe does include baking soda or such, you can make the switch, but do not add the required raising agent. If you use plain flour instead of self-raising flour, you will need to mix two teaspoons of baking powder into each cup of flour.

You cannot use self-raising flour to successfully make bread the traditional yeast-leavened way. If you add yeast to self raising flour, your bread is likely to flop into itself due to over-proofing.

There are 353 calories in 100g of Self Raising Flour (1479kJ/100g).



Q: Is Cornmeal the same as Polenta?

A: Yes, cornmeal is the same as polenta, but it’s a bit complicated. Whilst polenta is simply whole corn kernels which have been ground into a coarse flour, in some parts of the world “polenta” is taken to be the product of cornmeal. Polenta is usually cooked by boiling one-part cornmeal with four parts water to make a porridge. The porridge can be eaten as-is or left to cool into a polenta loaf. Once cooled, the solid polenta can be cut into slices and fried or baked. Thus, polenta is corn meal to some people, yet to others polenta is what you make with cornmeal. In a pinch, you can substitute semolina for polenta, but your finished product will be stickier and smoother.

Polenta Cornmeal in Australia

There are 335 calories, or 1406 kilojoules per 100g of polenta.

Q: Can you buy Cake Flour in Australia?

A: Yes, you can, cake flour is available from most major grocery shops. However, cake flour is not usually called so in this country (see the calorie link below for an example). The only difference between cake flour and plain flour is that cake flour has a lower protein value. Cake Flour is also known as Soft Flour in Australia, because it is made with a blend of low protein/gluten wheat which results in a less structured bake. Read the section on Baker’s Flour to understand how the protein in flour makes for a chewy bite. Most people prefer their cake to break easily in a delicate crumble, hence the use of low protein flour.

You can make your own cake flour by adding two tablespoons of cornflour to one cup of plain flour. The resultant mix has a wheat protein level comparable to that of commercially available cake flour and will make less dense cakes than pure plain flour.

Cake Flour Australia

There are 370 calories (1552kJ) in 100g of cake flour.

Q: What can be used as a flour alternative?

A: Nothing can substitute flour because flour is the only flour there is. Any alternative to flour must be like flour, so it is flour. Make flour by milling any food to a dry powder. This includes grains like wheat and corn, nuts like almond, rhizomes like arrowroot, and seeds like amaranth and quinoa. Any flour can be used for baking, thickening, frying, boiling, and steaming, but of course the results will vary depending on the type of flour used. For best results, follow a good recipe, or just have fun experimenting. Anyone for coconut flour banana bread?

Now, see 8 Substitutes for Vegetable Oil!

Ideal Body Weight Calculator

Ideal Body Weight Calculator

Use our calcount Ideal Body Weight (IBW) Calculator to compute the “perfect” weight for your height and gender. Simply select female or male, then use the slider or type your height in cm to see your ideal body weight in kg. If interested, read on further to learn how and why this calculator works!

The Ideal Body Weight

Somewhere, there exists an ideal person, and that perfect human has the ideal body weight. Their height and weight are in sublime harmony. Perhaps, that person only exists in the philosophy of Plato’s World of Forms but that has not stopped scientists from coming up with formulas to calculate everyone’s ideal weight.

Not So Ideal

Before delving deeper into the whys and wherefores of calculating ideal body weight (IBW), it must be understood that there is no universally agreed optimum weight for a given height. Leaving aside the philosophical and ethical challenges of human body weight classifications, several practical issues make IBW calculations hard to do.



The main issue is that people are different by nature, so an ideal weight for one person may not be a good weight for another person. A muscle-bound athlete is likely to have a body weight which exceeds the calculated ideal, simply due to the extra muscle tissue. Elderly people suffering from advanced sarcopenia (age-related muscle loss) might have an ideal weight yet be carrying unhealthy fat deposits. Tall and short people are left out from formulas which work best for the average-height person. Likewise for pregnant, large, or small framed people.

Not for Kids

The ideal body weight calculator does not apply to kids, because most (all?) formulae just don’t work with growing bodies. Children’s body proportions change with growth, so weight to height ratios that statistically work well in adult populations make less sense for kids.  Furthermore, popular IBW formulae tend to provide unrealistic results in IBW calculations for people under 152cm in height.

Ideal Body Weight Definition

Caveats aside, it is useful to calculate and aspire to a defined ideal body weight. Why? Because the definition of ideal body weight (IBW) is: the optimal weight associated with maximum life expectancy for a given height, according to Yuan and Sinha. The data to support the concept of IBW comes from life-insurance statistics. Now, who does not want to achieve the weight which gives them the best chance of growing really old?

IBW is a Target

Ideal Body Weight Calculation Formula

There are literally hundreds of different formulae and variations on the most popular formula to calculate the ideal body weight. Before the introduction of BMI, ideal body weight (IBW) formulas were widely used as the yardstick of healthy weight. The IBW formula published in 1974 by Ben Devine is the one most used today. It was first used to estimate how fast drugs passed through obese people compared to others.

Our calcount IBW calculator uses this Devine formula. Whilst not perfect (none of the formulae are), the Devine formula is the most useful one. There may be better, more scientific, IBW formulae out there, but none are more popular than Devine. The actual formula is simple:

For Males: 50 kg + 0.9 kg × (person’s height (cm) − 152)

For Females: 45.5 kg + 0.9 kg × (person’s height (cm) − 152)

The Ideal Body Weight Chart

The Devine formula, plotted on a graph, makes a useful ideal body weight chart. Results above the line are considered to be overweight, whilst those under the line are underweight. The ideal weight for a given height is right on the line.

Ideal Body Weight Chart

What’s the Point?

At the end of the day, there is no such thing as an Ideal Body Weight for an individual person. However, the calculated IBW is a useful number to aim for when purposefully managing body weight to support good health. People who are close to their IBW feel and look better. They generally have better health than people who are nowhere close to their IBW. BMI, WHR and other measures may be better, but only IBW gives you a single, unequivocal targeted ideal weight.

Trout VS Tuna VS Salmon

Trout VS Salmon VS Tuna

Trout VS Salmon VS Tuna means calories and nutrition in trout, compared to salmon, compared to tuna, let’s go! You might have read our post on the best 3 fish you can eat and thought: “How does salmon compare to trout and tuna?”. It is a natural question, considering that salmon and trout are sometimes mistaken for one another, and tuna shares a lot of the characteristics of both. Well, read on to see how these three popular fish stack up nutritionally.

Calories in Trout, Salmon, and Tuna

The calorie differences between these three species proves that fish are not food equivalent to one another. Salmon has 209 calories per 100 grams, whilst Trout has 154, and Tuna 103. Putting those numbers into perspective, you can eat more than twice as much tuna as salmon for the same calories! Trout has about 35% fewer calories than salmon, and about 50% more calories than tuna.  The big takeaway here is that if you are strictly counting your calories and choosing between equal weights of tuna and salmon, take the tuna.

Trout VS Salmon Nutrition

Tuna, Trout, and Salmon Protein

Fish is an excellent source of protein, but which fish out of tuna, salmon, and trout has more? It turns out that they are much of a muchness in this case. Tuna leads with 23g protein per 100g, followed by salmon with 21g/100g, and trout with 20g/100g. The protein difference on a weight-for-weight basis between tuna and trout is just 15%, in tuna’s favour. If you are targeting protein and need to make a fish choice for dinner, just follow your tastebuds.

Fat Content of Salmon, Trout, and Tuna

The fat from fish is high in omega-3 fatty acids, which fight inflammation and may help heart health. Here, there is a stark difference between trout, tuna, and salmon. Salmon, at 14g per 100g, leads in fat content. Trout follows with 42% less fat (8g/100g), whilst tuna lags with a skinny 1g of fat per 100g of edible weight. Tuna is much leaner than salmon and trout. You would have to eat 14 times more tuna than salmon to get the same amount of fat!



Is Trout healthier than Salmon?

In a word, no. Trout is not healthier than salmon because it typically contains less of the valuable omega-3 fatty acids found in the fat of both salmon and trout. Bear in mind that the words “salmon” and “trout” are not scientific classifications. What we call Rainbow Trout and Pink Salmon are actually in the same genus (family) called Oncorhynchus. Brown Trout and Atlantic Salmon, on the other hand, are both in the genus called Salmo. As with so many other fish, the names get confused and swapped around depending on time and location. For example, in China all trout are called salmon.

Mercury in Fish like Salmon

Tuna VS Salmon VS Trout Mercury

Tuna, salmon, and trout all accumulate heavy metals like mercury from the food they eat. Being near the top of their food chains, they are the second last stop for mercury as it passes from plankton to predator from its starting point in volcanoes and geothermal vents. Mercury concentration is measured in PPM (Parts-Per-Million). Tuna, with 0.391PPM, contains far more mercury than either salmon or trout. Trout has 0.071PPM, whilst salmon has 0.014PPM. Whilst it is generally accepted that the benefits of eating fish outweighs the risk of mercury poisoning, studies like this one show that there is no healthy level of mercury for humans. Given a choice between these three fish, choose salmon to reduce your mercury intake.

What Tastes Better, Salmon, Trout, or Tuna?

When it comes to taste, in our opinion, salmon wins hands down. It is a versatile fish which can be prepared successfully in so many ways, from pan-searing, to baking, to grilling and even steaming. The problem with tuna is that it can dry out quickly when cooking, due to the low-fat content. Tuna tastes “cleaner” than salmon and trout, but it can be chewy when overcooked (it is easily overcooked). Trout, on the other hand, can have an inconsistent texture and flavour, depending on its growth environment. Maybe we have just had one too many muddy-tasting trout to be convinced that it can hold a candle to salmon.

Salmon tastes better than Tuna and Trout

That said, choice cuts from all three fish make excellent sashimi and sushi. They’re also not bad in canned form. Use our Food Search Box to compare brands!

Broccoli Calories

Broccoli Calories

How many calories does broccoli have? Take a quick scroll through this short post to get a good handle on broccoli’s food energy content!

Calories in Broccoli by Weight

Each 100 grams of raw broccoli contains 31 calories, or 131 kilojoules.  A medium head of broccoli has about 100 calories. This means that broccoli has fewer kilojoules than pumpkin, but more Cal than cauliflower, and much more food energy than lettuce. Broccoli is a low-calorie food, as might be expected, but it is not a low-calorie vegetable. There are many other types of vegetables which rank lower than broccoli in food energy terms.

A Whole Broccoli Calories

The number of calories in one head of broccoli depends on the weight of the bunch. A small head of broccoli weighs about 220g and contains 68 calories (288kJ), whereas a large one could be 600 grams with 186 kcal and 786 kilojoules. A cup of broccoli weighs between 80 to 100g, depending on how it is cut, which equates to 25-31 Cal.

Broccoli  calories compared

Is Broccoli Good for Weight Loss?

Yes, broccoli is good for weight loss because it is low in food energy and high in fibre. The dietary fibre in broccoli swells with water absorption, stretching the stomach to make you feel fuller for longer. Furthermore, the type of carbohydrates in broccoli tend to last longer than fast-burn sugars. Some research indicates that glucoraphanin in broccoli may even help to reduce unhealthy liver fat by breaking it down.

Eating Broccoli Every Day

Despite what you might have heard, it is not good to eat large amounts of broccoli every day. Broccoli, like all cabbages, is a cruciferous vegetable which contains many heavily researched chemicals which may fight cancer. Unfortunately, some of these compounds can provoke allergies when consumed in large quantities for sustained periods. Another problem is that the high fibre content of broccoli can irritate the bowel and cause bloating and excessive gas. It is best to eat a wide variety of vegetables, including broccoli, as part of a balanced diet.

Waist to Hip Ratio

Waist to Hip Ratio: Your Ideal Number

Your waist to hip ratio (WHR) could be a better indicator of healthy body weight than body mass index (BMI). Find you current and ideal waist to hip ratio with this handy calcount WHR Calculator, then read on to learn more about this valuable health metric.

Simply enter the circumference measurements of your waist and hips in centimeters (cm) to calculate your waist-to-hip ratio.



Waist to Hip Ratio

Waist to to hip ratio is a measure of how much fat there is in the middle of your body, an area covering the waist, buttocks, and hips. It is an important measure because an increasing body of research supports the view that fatty mid-sections are particularly bad for health. Multiple studies find that people with central obesity (fat middle sections) suffer health risks even when they have normal BMIs. This is because fat which attaches to internal organs in the midriff is sensitive to hormones such as cortisol (a stress hormone). The fat disrupts healthy endocrine system function to increase the risk of type 2 diabetes and heart disease.

Calculate Waist to Hip Ratio (Formula)

To calculate waist to hip ratio, you need just two measurements: circumference of the waist (W), and the circumference of the hips (H). Divide W by H to get the ratio (R). Thus,

W / H = WHR

This calculation shows why it is not correct to use the phrase Waist To Hip Ratio interchangeably with the phrase Hip To Waist Ratio. The concept is to compare waist to hip, not hip to waist.

WHR Formula

Concept of Waist to Hip Comparison

Why compare the size of your waist to the size of your hips? Is it in any way more informative than comparing height to weight (BMI), or waist to chest (WCR), or wrist to shoulders? According to health scientists, the waist to hips comparison is especially useful for measuring abdominal visceral fat. This is the fat which grows around the vital organs in the space between the chest cavity and the hip bones. A person who grows belly fat a rate faster than hip fat is at a higher risk of weight-related disease. WHR is basically a measure of “belly fat”, so can be more accurate at diagnosing harmful obesity than other measures.

Normal WHR

Normal, or healthy waist-to-hip ratio is an indication that there is not a lot of fat clinging to vital internal organs in the abdominal section. The World health Organisation (WHO) defines normal WHR as being in the range of 0.85 to 0.90 or less, but the definitions are different for men and women.

Ideal Waist to Hip Ratio for Males

The ideal waist to hip ratio for men is 0.95 or lower. This means that your waist should be smaller than your hips by at least 5%. A ratio of between 0.96 and 1 is considered borderline unhealthy, with an increased risk of weight-related health problems. A WHR of 1 and up is unhealthy, because a middle which is larger than the hips is likely to be carrying a high load of abdominal fat. The ideal waist size for men is 102cm or less.

Ideal Waist Size for Females

Women have an ideal waist to hip ratio of 0.80 or lower. This ideal WHR is much lower than it is for men, because women have proportionally larger hips in nature. Women with waist to hip ratios between 0.81 to 0.85 are at moderate risk of weight-related health problems. A WHR of 0.86 and above is considered unhealthy, with a high risk of adverse health effects. The actual ideal waist size for women depends on the size of their hips – it is all about proportion. That said, a general rule of thumb for women is to have a waist measurement of less than 89cm.

Ideal Waist to Hips Ratio Men Women

Beauty and WHR

Waist to hip ratio is a major determinant of generally perceived attractiveness, especially for women. Whilst the waist to chest ratio (WCR) is more important for men, the waist to hip ratio (WHR) is regarded as the single most important factor in body attractiveness for women, according to several scientific studies. A typical study asks large, diverse groups of people to rate a series of digitally altered photographs of models with different WHRs. The results indicate that the “perfect” waist to hips ratio for women is 0.7, and 0.8 for men.

Measure Hips and Waist

It is easy to take a measurement of you hips and waist in the comfort of your home. Standing with back straight and heels on the ground, use a flexible tape to measure around your belly, just above the navel. That is your waist measurement. For the hips, wind the tape around the broadest section of your buttocks to get your hip measurement.

Why use Waist to Hip Ratio?

Although it is a useful health indicator for everyone, waist to hip ratio is especially important for older people. According to the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, WHR is better at predicting premature death in the elderly than BMI (body mass index). This is probably because BMI, as we note here, does not take the body’s proportion of muscle mass into account. Elder people tend to lose muscle mass through age-related sarcopenia, so the proportion of fat to muscle changes in fat’s favour. An old person can balance muscle loss with fat gain, becoming unhealthier even whilst maintaining a supposedly healthy weight. WHR picks up on this trend as the waist grows in proportion to the hips.

Older people and waist to hips ratio

When is WHR not useful?

Waist to hip ratio is not always a better choice than BMI or simple waist measurements. The main problem is that hip measurements can be subjective and misleading. People who exercise their hips, for example by cycling, tend to grow significant muscle mass around the buttocks/glutes and upper thighs. This muscle mass contributes to the hip measurement to skew the WHR, “hiding” the true amount of abdominal fat. The same problem applies to people with large core muscles around the front abdominal area (abs) and the bottom of the back (lats) which can throw out the waist measurement. To further complicate matters, some people have proportionally wide hips or stout girth due to bone structure, obviating the “normal” waist to hips ratio.

Conclusion

It is easy to measure waist to hip ratio, and it can be a more useful indicator of a healthy body weight than BMI. However, WHR can be misleading in some situations, so it should be used in conjunction with simple waist measurement, fat percentage, body mass index, and other metrics to get a balanced indication of healthy weight.

Calculate your BMI right now!